Asia Internet History – Section Outlines

In the (draft) Foreword to the Asia Internet History – Third Decade (2000-2010) Prof. David J. Farber writes:

One of the early attempts to extend the reach of the Internet to Asia was via the “Johnny Appleseed” approach. That is a set of people responded to queries by people in Asian countries asking how they could connect with the growing Internet by offering to supply tapes to key people in the requesting countries, often by physically going with the tapes, as well as providing access points to the USA Internet. The people that we, I was one of the seeders, worked, with became the leaders in their nation and founded the initial national networks that blossomed with time and often formed the basis of commercial Internets.

The traditions that these network frontier pioneers established lead to the eventual spread of the benefits of Internet access to not only their nations but became models for the spread to the rest of Asia…

It is my distinct honour to contribute to the pioneering series titled Asia Internet History, edited by Dr. Kilnam Chon, by foregrounding a range of other individuals and organisations that often worked outside but in engagement with the national governments, and technical and academic institutions that govern the connecting tapes of the Internet, to ensure mass access to and effective usages of Internet in Asia.

The two sections, to be authored me, provides an overview of ‘civil society organisations’ working across Asian countries that have played a critical role in the shaping of policy-making and discourse around Internet governance during 2000-2010, and then undertakes a closer look at the organisations working in India and their interventions at national, regional, and global levels.

Please read the draft outlines of the overview section and the section on Indian organisations, and share your comments. The comments can be posted on the GitHub page where the outlines are hosted, on this page, or over email: sumandro[at]cis-india[dot]org.

Poster for Sarai and Stickers for CIS

Recently, I had the pleasure of designing the poster for a workshop organised by The Sarai Programme, and also a set of stickers for the Researchers at Work (RAW) programme at the Centre for Internet and Society, which I am now associated with.

The video workshop at Sarai explored on the forms, consumptions, and circulations of video materials over the last three-four decades, with a specific focus on negotiations and continuations between analog and digital video technologies. The poster had to speak to these topics, and also (slightly) embody a film poster aesthetic. I decided to work with an image of a USB drive that looks like a VHS cassette, and organise the text around it.

Here is the final poster.

Continue reading Poster for Sarai and Stickers for CIS

Opening Government Data through Mediation

In early 2012, Government of India approved the first policy in the country governing proactive disclosure of government data, and especially of born-digital and digitised data. This National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy (NDSAP) extends the mandate of the Right to Information (RTI) Act to establish policy and administrative support to enable informed citizenship, better decision-making and heightened transparency and accountability.

As part of Exploring the Emerging Impacts of Open Data in Developing Countries research network managed by the World Wide Web Foundation and supported by the International Development Research Centre, Canada, I undertook a study of the roles, practices and strategies of (potential) data intermediary organisations in India.

The study explores not the outcomes of the NDSAP or the Open Government Data Platform of India as such, but the existing practices of accessing and using government data in India to understand what challenges this Policy and its implementations should respond to, and what available opportunities can be mobilised towards an effective open data agenda.

The study is now completed and all the materials associated with it — project report, blog posts, academic papers, and other resources — can be accessed through the project site:

Alternatively, you can directly download the Executive Summary or the project report.

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Access and Use of Government Data by Research and Advocacy Organisations in India: A Survey of (Potential) Open Data Ecosystem

I am presenting a paper titled ‘Access and Use of Government Data by Research and Advocacy Organisations in India: A Survey of (Potential) Open Data Ecosystem’ at the Eighth International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV), being organised in Guimaraes, Portugal, during October 27-30, 2014.


The paper presents findings from a recently competed study of the practices of accessing and using government data by selected (non-governmental and non-commercial) research and advocacy organisations in India. The study takes place in the context of the Government of India adopting an open government data policy and launching an open data portal in 2012. Although, most of the organisations interacted with in this study are yet to begin substantial usage of the open data portal, they have a longer history of working with national-scale government data. The study explores the data practices of these organisations so as to evaluate the possibilities and challenges for them to act as ‘open data intermediaries’ – that is organisations that mediate access and use of open data by other organisations. The findings of the study provide a cross-sectoral view of the current situation of accessing and using government data in India, and briefly reflects on the future strategies towards a robust open data ecosystem in India.

The pre-publication version of the paper can be accessed here.

Continue reading Access and Use of Government Data by Research and Advocacy Organisations in India: A Survey of (Potential) Open Data Ecosystem

A World that Counts – First Public Draft of Report by IEAG on Data Revolution – Submitted Comments

The Independent Expert Advisory Group on ‘data revolution for sustainable development’ set up by the United Nations, and led by Claire Melamed, published the first public draft of their report on October 24, 2014. The PDF version of the report can be accessed here.

Various potential criticisms of the draft report aside, it surley marks a splendid beginning. Though sometimes unevently, it crucially includes explicit acknowledgements of (1) the reality of an unfolding ‘data revolution’ almost without public regulation, and enforcement of ‘data rights’ of individuals, (2) the inadequacy of the actually existing ‘data revolution’ to achieve sustainable development for all, (3) the importance of reimagining National Statistical Organisations as a nodal agency in directing ‘data revolution for sustainabale development,’ (4) the need to adopt open data principles and practices, and (5) the critical necessity of international and national principles and policies to govern ‘data rights’ of individuals. Of course this is a very selective list of a great range of themes covered in the draft report.

Below is the comments submitted by me in response to the first public draft report. The relevant sections of the report are in bold followed by my comments.

Continue reading A World that Counts – First Public Draft of Report by IEAG on Data Revolution – Submitted Comments

An Open Data Agenda for Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals

This is the text of a submission note prepared by me in response to the call from the Independent Expert Advisory Group on ‘data revolution and sustainable development’ of United Nations. It includes contributions from Tim Davies, Zacharia Chiliswa, and Gisele S. Craveiro.

It was submitted earlier today. The submitted document can be accessed here (PDF).

1. An Open Data Agenda for Post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals

Data revolution’ has been one of the most remarkable categories of imagination and exploration to emerge from the report of the United Nation’s High Level Panel on the Post-2015 Development Agenda [1]. The identification of availability of data on the global status of human development as a key problem area is not surprising given the experiences of measuring, monitoring and implement the Millennium Development Goals. Nonetheless, the recommendation by the High Level Panel for massive restructuring of infrastructures for generating global, reliable, comparable, and timely data is significant.

A brief note prepared by the High Level Panel explains that the ‘data revolution’ has two key objectives: ‘1) the integration of statistics into public and private sector decision making; and 2) building trust between society and state through transparency and accountability’ [2]. The note also lists nine strategic interventions required to achieve these objectives. Only one of which, however, addresses the second main objective.

This submission suggests that an accountable and transparent revolution of global collection and utilisation of data for sustainable development must embrace openness as a fundamental pre-condition of the data concerned. In other words, a data revolution for sustainable development must be based upon global collection, usage, and publication of open data (relevant for purposes of sustainable development).

The Independent Expert Advisory Group on ‘data revolution for sustainable development’ (henceforth, IEAG) has already addressed the question of open data through defining one of its consultation areas around the concept of ‘Accessible Data,’ which comprises of topics related to open data, accountability, and data literacy. This submission, however, proposes that open data must be considered as a cross-cutting principle and instrument of ensuring transparency, trust and security spanning all the constituent areas of the ‘data revolution’ — measuring of sustainable development goals, innovation through big data and new technologies, and addressing system challenges throughout the data landscape.

To reiterate, this submission finds the decision of the IEAG to dedicate an entire consultation area to ‘Accessible Data’ most encouraging and praiseworthy. However, it is necessary to simultaneously ensure that the concern for and transformative potential of open data is not contained within one consultation area within, but is discussed and deployed across the various aspects of the ‘data revolution.’

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‘Data Revolution’ – Background Readings

With the policy period of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) coming to an end in 2015, United Nations instituted a High Level Panel to advise on the framing of the discussion on post-2015 global development framework and the design of the Sustainable Development Goals. The Panel submitted its report in May 2013.

The report highlights five transformative shifts as core foci of the post-2015 development agenda, and identifies ‘data revolution’ as a necessary and fundamental component of operationalising such an agenda. This identification is directly compelled by the experiences of measuring, monitoring and implement the MDGs. To quote from a brief note on ‘data revolution’ published by the Panel:

Sadly, the availability quality and accessibility of the data we have today just aren’t good enough. Too often, development efforts are hampered by a lack of the most basic data about the social and economic circumstances in which people live. This requires a commitment to changing the way we collect and share data, both from the bottom up and the top down… The availability of information has improved during the implementation of the MDGs, but much better data are necessary. We have yet to establish an accurate picture of how many people are living in extreme poverty today; without that, it is very hard to work out the best ways to move that number to zero by 2030.

While the challenge of absent and unreliable of global development data is a very critical one, the question here is if ‘data revolution’ is being conceptualised robustly enough to address it. The same note explains:

At its heart, the data revolution comprises two main objectives: 1) the integration of statistics into public and private sector decision making; 2) building trust between society and state through transparency and accountability.

Continue reading ‘Data Revolution’ – Background Readings

Tweets from the Round Table on ‘Inclusion in the Network Society’

IT for Change and IDRC, Canada, organised a round table last week to map the emerging and critical research questions around the issue of ‘inclusion in the network society.’ The discussions were expansive, intense, contested, and very enriching.

Mark Graham - Inclusion in the Network SocietySource: Mark Graham.

I did some vigorous and inspired tweeting throughtout the round table. As Tim Davies has already comprehensively collected all the tweets from the round table, I am sharing below only few of my tweets (and conversations) that I feel capture the essential questions coming out of the three days.

But first I quick word cloud of most repeated words from all the tweets coming out of the round table (during September 29 to October 01) with the hashtag #networkinclusion:

Round Table on Network Inclusion - Tweets - All

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Mapping Workshop – Resources

This is a list of mapping resources gathered during a workshop at NID, Paldi, in August 2014.


John Krygier & Denis Wood – Ce n’est pas le monde (This is not the world).

Jeremy W. Crampton & John Krygier – An Introduction to Critical Cartography.

Denis Wood & John Krygier – Cartography: Critical Cartography

John Krygier – Map Art Exhibitions 2010-11 & Map Art Exhibitions 2012-13.

Christian Nold (ed.) – Emotional Cartography – Technologies of the Self

Counter Cartographies Collective – Blog, Maps, Papers, and Presentations.

Denis Wood – Interview – Mapping Marginality.

Alexis Madrigal – How Google Builds Its Maps – and What It Means for the Future of Everything.

Continue reading Mapping Workshop – Resources

Information, Infrastructure, Inclusion: Research Notes on Materiality of Electronic Governance in India

IT for Change and International Development Research Centre, Canada, are organising a Round Table on ‘Inclusion in the Network Society‘ in September-October this year. I am honoured to take part in the Round Table and present a paper that comes out of my ongoing research on electronic governance and the Aadhaar project. Below is an excerpt from the submitted extended abstract of the paper:

The discussion of the Aadhaar project and the conceptualisation of inclusion through intertwined terminologies of ‘access’ and ‘delivery’ call for a political economic appreciation of this model of electronic, or networked, governance. These terms – access and delivery – stand for an ideological collapsing of the agencies that provide welfare-services and uphold human rights, and the diverging modalities of relationships between those who access services and those who deliver them. This conceptual blurring of governmental, semi-governmental and private providers of welfare and infrastructural services deeply undermine the available and effective modes of demanding of services and rights by the citizens. The universalising infrastructures of networked governance, such as those (claimed to be) enabled by Aadhaar project, are developing the material basis for seamless information sharing between various agencies, public and private, that will deliver such services. The ‘architecture of participation’ (to borrow a phrase from Tim O’Reilly) in such networks simultaneously determine the spaces of exclusion in the networked society. This paper highlights the need of reading the politics of inclusion/exclusion in the networked societies through its very material basis – the infrastructures of information gathering, archiving, analysing, and sharing.

Read the full abstract at the Round Table website.